The L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) transports large neutral amino acids and drugs across the plasma membrane and is crucial for nutrient uptake, brain drug delivery and tumor growth. LAT1 is a unique solute carrier that forms a disulfide-linked heterodimer with the cell-surface glycoprotein CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc), but the mechanisms of its molecular assembly and amino acid transport are poorly understood. Here we report the cryo-EM structure of the human LAT1-CD98hc heterodimer at 3.4 Å resolution, revealing the hitherto unprecedented architecture of a solute carrier-glycoprotein heterocomplex. LAT1 features a canonical LeuT-fold while exhibiting an unusual loop structure on transmembrane helix 6, creating an extended cavity to accommodate bulky hydrophobic amino acids and drugs. CD98hc engages with LAT1 through multiple interactions, not only in the extracellular and transmembrane domains but also in the interdomain linker. The heterodimer interface features multiple sterol molecules, corroborating previous biochemical data on the role of cholesterols in heterodimer stabilization. We also visualized the binding modes of two anti-CD98 antibodies and show that they recognize distinct, multiple epitopes on CD98hc but not its glycans, explaining their robust reactivities despite the glycan heterogeneity. Furthermore, we mapped disease-causing mutations onto the structure and homology models, which rationalized some of the phenotypes of SLC3- and SLC7-related congenital disorders. Together, these results shed light on the principles of the structural assembly between a glycoprotein and a solute carrier, and provide a template for improving preclinical drugs and therapeutic antibodies targeting LAT1 and CD98.
Lee, P. Wiriyasermkul, C. Jin, L. Quan, R. Ohgaki, S. Okuda, T. Kusakizako, T. Nishizawa, K. Oda, R. Ishitani, T. Yokoyama, T. Nakane, M. Shirouzu, H. Endou, S. Nagamori, Y. Kanai, O. Nureki Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 26, 510-517 (2019).